Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism

Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is without doubt one of the so much fascinating rulers of old Egypt. His unusual visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the sunlight disc Aten have motivated educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the various books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions about Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.

In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James ok. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten was once now not, as is usually stated, a thorough advocating a brand new faith, yet relatively a primitivist: that's, person who reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's idea was once the outdated nation (2650-2400 B.C.E.), whilst the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unequalled head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier unearths that Akhenaten used to be a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only real writer God, in line with the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine come across that introduced his monotheistic non secular odyssey. The e-book additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable courting to Israel's faith, providing an in depth comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out by means of students as inspired by way of the Egyptian hymn.

Through a cautious examining of key texts, works of art, and archaeological reports, Hoffmeier offers compelling new insights right into a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the influence of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.

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12, scenes 1 & 2; 14, scenes five & 6; sixteen scene 10. fifty one For examples, see ibid. , pl. sixteen, scene nine; 17 scene 12; 24 scene 25. forty four forty five a long way Frontiers forty three determine 2. three  White Chapel of Senusert I (Karnak Temple). photograph James okay. Hoffmeier. Osiris), with erect phallus (his such a lot attribute attribute), and status with toes jointly perched on a shoebox-sized stand. fifty two In scenes the place Min is depicted, a patch of growing to be lettuce frequently stands in the back of him and/or a worshiper extends his arm with a head of lettuce to the deity, which additional demonstrates that lettuce is linked to Min (Figure 2. 6). fifty three within the White Chapel, besides the fact that, the Min-like deity is usually pointed out as Amun-Re or Amun, whereas Min’s identify doesn't ensue, neither as Amun-Min. fifty four certainly, the vast majority of depictions of Amun/Amun-Re at the White Chapel are within the ithyphallic shape, and there are greater than a dozen examples the place lettuce is proven, both turning out to be in the back of the status deity or within the hand of the presenter. fifty five Then, too, there are a number of circumstances within the White Chapel the place the Min-like figures endure the identify ἰmn okayȝ mwt. f, “Amun Bull of his mom. ”56 This epithet, which starts at the moment, is linked to the fertility element of Amun,57 and hence will be just like Min. obviously, the White Chapel celebrates the fusion Wilkinson, the whole Gods and Goddesses of old Egypt, 115–116. Ludwig Keimer, “Die Pflanze des Gottes Min,” ZÄS fifty nine (1924): 140–143. fifty four For examples, see ibid. , pl. 17, scenes 12 & thirteen; 18 scenes thirteen & 14; 20 scenes 17 & 18; 21 scene 20. With the writing in basic terms of Amun, see pl. 32 scene 12’; forty, scenes 28’. fifty five Lacau & Chevrier, Une Chapelle de Sésostris Ier a Karnak, Planches, pl. 20, scenes 17; 21 scene 19 & 20; 22 scene 21; 23 scenes 23 & 24; 26 scenes 29 & 30; 29 scenes five’ & 6’; 35 scene 17’; 36 scene 19’; 38 scene 26’. fifty six Ibid. , pl. 20 scene 18; 21 scene 19; 32 scene 14’. fifty seven Wilkinson, the whole Gods and Goddesses of historical Egypt, ninety three. fifty two fifty three figure 2. four  Senusert I and Amun (White Chapel Karnak Temple). photograph James ok. Hoffmeier. determine 2. five  Ithyphallic kind of Amun (White Chapel Karnak Temple). photograph James ok. Hoffmeier. some distance Frontiers forty five determine 2. 6  Amun-Re as Min with lettuce vegetation (White Chapel Karnak Temple). picture Willeke Wendrich. of Min and Amun-Re in Thebes. fifty eight The conjoining of Amun and Re had it sounds as if already taken position in the course of the reign of Amenemhet I. regrettably, no Theban temple of Amenemhet that may have celebrated that union exists or has survived. Senusert I did construct one other limestone chapel at Karnak that used to be additionally devoted to Amun-Re. to pass judgement on from the extant blocks found in the outdoor museum at Karnak, Amun-Re looks in his conventional shape (Figure 2. 7). fifty nine the following there is not any hint of the ithyphallic shape. additional at the politics and paintings of Senusert I, see now David Lorand, Arts et Politique sous Sesostris Ier: Littérature, sculpture et structure dan leur contexte historique (Turnhout: Brepols, 2012). fifty nine Blocks from this chapel are on exhibit within the open-air museum at Karnak Temple, which the writer used to be in a position to study in March 2013.

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