Cistercians, Heresy and Crusade in Occitania, 1145-1229: Preaching in the Lord's Vineyard

By Beverly Mayne Kienzle

Led by way of the instance of Bernard of Clairvaux, Cistercian priests grew to become their cognizance to the realm outdoors the monastery partitions in keeping with the possibility posed through heretical Christians, specifically the Cathars. The white priests, with different intellectuals, became to pen, pulpit and renowned preaching to counteract heresy, a few accepting posts as bishops and papal legates, aiding or even directing the Albigensian campaign, and contributing to the formula of approaches for inquisition. Kienzle examines this crucial yet little-studied point of Cistercian background to find how and why the Order undertook endeavours that drew the priests outdoor their monastic vocation. The research of texts in regards to the preaching campaigns and their contexts light up the ways that medieval monastic authors perceived heresy, preached, and wrote opposed to it.Professor BEVERLY MAYNE KIENZLE teaches at Harvard Divinity college.

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Forty five. Congar, pp. 38±41, describes the critical occasions of Henry's involvement in France prior to his go back to Rome in 1182. See above, n. 87. Biget, `Les Albigeois', p. 244. PL, CCIV, 239±40. See above, nn. 59±60. Chronicon Clarevallensis, PL, CLXXXV, 1250A. Congar, pp. 35±6. Congar states (p. 36): `Henri s'empara du chaÃteau par miracle, disent les files cisterciens. Entendons d'une facËon inespeÂreÂe et sans qu'un assaut en reÁgle fut neÂcessaire; en reÂaliteÂ, graÃce aÁ los angeles complicite d'AdelaõÈde. ' 132 c:/3kienzle/ch04. 3d ± 29/11/0 ± 19:43 ± disk/mp Henry of Clairvaux Geoffrey of Auxerre reviews the legate's good fortune in 1181 at changing heretics after bringing them to tears. This conversion came about on 15 September 1181 and the 2 convertees turned canons of the cathedral of St Etienne in Toulouse. Geoffrey praises Henry's potent preaching and the chronicler Robert of Auxerre additionally testi®es to the strength of his notice. Geoffrey states that the Holy Spirit moved the legate to such eloquence along with his preaching that his phrases of grace introduced the 2 to a heartfelt, tearful confession in their error within the presence of an exceptional and numerous crowd. ninety nine Robert describes Henry as: `a guy of eloquent tongue . . . who with the observe of his preaching drew hoards of knights and infantrymen from all over the place and combatted the aforesaid heretics'. The chronicler William of Puylaurens studies brie¯y at the taking of Lavaur and at the conversion of Bernard Raymond,100 who was once one of many heretics despatched by way of Henry to Peter of St Chrysogonus in Toulouse at the previous failed day trip of 1178. Henry turns out to have occupied himself essentially at Rome for the subsequent ®ve years, that's, from the summer season of 1182 onward. a hundred and one He used to be a candidate for the papal elections of 1187, yet he withdrew and in its place provided the longer term Gregory VIII his prone to evangelise the campaign to the Holy Land. Gregory died having spent purely ®fty-seven days as pope. Henry made a similar provide to Clement III after which undertook preaching excursions, which have been stated through the chronicler Giselbertus. moreover, an exemplum advised through Caesarius of Heisterbach locations Henry on horseback in Germany preaching the campaign to the Holy Land in 1188. In that story, a lay brother, upon Henry's invitation to evangelise, tells a narrative within which St Benedict greets Henry on the gate of Heaven. Benedict, shocked by way of seeing a mitre on a monk, orders the door keepers to open Henry's belly to work out what he has eaten in lifestyles. Peas and easy meals will permit him to go into with different priests; plump ®sh and worldly meals would require him to stay open air. Henry reacts with enjoyment and praises the lay brother's story. 102 ninety nine a hundred a hundred and one 102 Apocalypsim, p. 210: `duos haeresiarchas . . . comprehensos novimus et oblatos venerabili patri nostro domino Henrico Albanensi episcopo, apostolicae sedis in Aquitania tunc legato. Quibus astantibus, dum idem pontifex advert copiossimam multitudinem diversae conditionibus et diversi ordinis adversus eandem haeresim sermonem faceret, prout Spiritus Sanctus dabat eloqui illi, praedicti haeresiarchae in verbis gratiae quae procedebant de ore eius, Domino inspirante, usque adeo sunt compuncti, ut secretas haeresis illius blasphemias et exsecrans abominationes cum multis lacrimis, audientibus omnibus, non distulerint con®teri.

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