# How Does One Cut a Triangle?

By Alexander Soifer

Including dozens of proofs and counterexamples, this moment version of Soifer’s inspirational e-book makes use of geometry, algebra, trigonometry, linear algebra, and earrings to teach how assorted components of arithmetic might be juxtaposed within the answer of a given problem.

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**Extra resources for How Does One Cut a Triangle?**

7. 2 The optimum consequence challenge 7. 2. 1. (The Five-Point challenge) Of any 5 issues in a triangle of zone 1, there are 3 issues that shape a triangle of quarter now not exceeding 1/4. evidence. think that 5 issues are given in a triangle of quarter 1 and that no 3 issues shape a triangle of region now not exceeding 1/4. we'll attempt to see the place those 5 issues could be located. once more, allow us to draw all 3 midlines (Figure 7. five (a)), and every pair (Figures 7. five (b), (c), (d)). permit S0 denote the midlines triangle in determine 7. five (a), together with its boundary; and permit S1 , S2 , and S3 denote the parallelograms in Figures 7. five (b), (c), and (d), together with their obstacles. we are going to use the logo m(Si ) for the variety of the given issues contained in Si . we all know that for any determine Si outlined above, m(Si ) ≤ five given that there are precisely 5 issues within the given triangle. actually, m ( S1 ) ≤ 2 m ( S2 ) ≤ 2 (38) m(S3 ) ≤ 2, simply because if m(Si ) ≥ three for a few i = 1, 2, three, the parallelogram Si comprises at the least 3 given issues. Then, because of instrument 7. 1. three, those 3 issues shape a triangle of sector now not exceeding 1/4, in contradiction to our assumption. Now realize that if we positioned Figures 7. five (b), (c), and (d) on best of determine 7. five (a) in order that the given triangles on all 4 figures coincide, the parallelograms S1 , S2 , and S3 will thoroughly hide the given triangle as soon as, and the triangle S0 could be lined additional instances. fifty six 7 Pursuit of the simplest end result S1 S0 (a) (b) S3 S2 (c) (d) determine 7. five This commentary has a neat outcome: m(S1 ) + m(S2 ) + m(S3 ) = five + 2m(S0 ). In different phrases, in view of (38), 2 + 2 + 2 ≥ five + 2m(S0 ) and hence 1 . 2 yet m(S0 ) is a complete quantity, for this reason, m ( S0 ) ≤ m ( S0 ) = zero and no given issues are within the heart triangle of determine 7. five (a)! 7. 2 The optimum consequence fifty seven Then the place are they? they're within the 3 nook triangles of determine 7. five (a) and allotted 1–2–2 (the unique assumption prevents the nook triangles from containing 3 or extra given points). with out lack of generality, allow us to suppose that the pinnacle triangle of determine 7. five (a) comprises precisely one given element. allow us to partition the given triangle into sixteen little congruent triangles via drawing directly traces parallel to the perimeters at equivalent durations (Figure 7. 6), and mark in black the triangle S0 (which we all know includes no given points). five four 1 2 three 6 determine 7. 6 enable i1 be the variety of given issues inside the little triangle marked by way of 1 (see determine 7. 6). We outline the numbers i2 , i3 , . . . , i6 equally. you'll remember the second one method to challenge 7. 1. 2. given that, as we spotted above, the triangle MBN (see determine 7. three) includes precisely one given aspect, the quarter PMNQ needs to comprise precisely 2 given issues (can you determine why? ). Now examine determine 7. 6. the entire given issues within the sector PMNQ needs to lie within the triangles marked 1 and a pair of. for that reason, i1 + i2 = 2. (39) equally, we will be able to exhibit (do! ) that 58 7 Pursuit of the easiest outcome and i3 + i4 ≥ 1 (40) i5 + i6 ≥ 1. Now i need to introduce the next sums: Σ 1 = i1 + i5 + i4 ; Σ three = i2 + i4 + i5 ; Σ five = i3 + i6 + i1 Σ 2 = i1 + i5 + i3 ; Σ four = i2 + i4 + i6 ; Σ 6 = i3 + i6 + i2 (41) Why did I outline them?