By Karel van der Toorn
Each decade we see the book of just one or works of scholarly excellence that essentially develop the certainty of the Hebrew Bible and alter the highbrow contours of the biblical box. Karel van der Toorn has complete this rarest of highbrow achievements. varied branches of bible study, no matter if literary, theological or historic in orientation, will strongly take advantage of this quantity. (Mark S. Smith, Skirball Professor of Bible and old close to japanese reports, long island University)
Van der Toorn has made a masterful case that the Hebrew Bible is the made of the scribal tradition of historic Israel and Judaism. His argument is lucidly and skillfully plotted and relentlessly and convincingly logical. quite amazing is his skill to convey facts from different old close to jap cultures at the scribal craft, particularly Mesopotamia, to a penetrating and nuanced elucidation of the Biblical case. In all, this is often particularly an immense contribution to bible study and a triumph of the comparative method of them. (Peter Machinist, Hancock Professor of Hebrew and different Oriental Languages, Harvard University)
Karel van der Toorn has really swept away a couple of unbelievable theories and even as has laid a company beginning for destiny learn. He cuts via a lot of the idea of the hot scholarly debate and proposes new theories that may be debatable yet are according to good facts. destiny debates in this subject might want to take his contributions under consideration or danger being looked as if it would be out of contact with the truth of historic literary perform. (Robert R. Wilson, Hoober Professor of spiritual reviews and Professor of previous testomony, Yale University)
This scrupulous examine via the Dutch pupil Karel van der Toorn of the way the Hebrew Bible used to be written after which developed through the years is in such a lot respects finely instructive. a few of what Toorn has to claim comprises thoughts lengthy common to Biblical students, notwithstanding even during this regard he offers many clean insights. approximately all of the book's argument, additionally, deals a powerful corrective to misconceptions in regards to the Bible...Karel van der Toorn is the perfect--and bracing--antithesis to Harold Bloom...Scribal tradition and the Making of the Hebrew Bible is a salutary e-book according to the main bold scholarly wisdom and research. it's going to compel readers to reconsider their conceptions of literary creation in old Israel, and it's a important reminder that during many respects these answerable for the biblical corpus have been particularly faraway from being early Iron Age equivalents of Flaubert or Henry James. (Robert regulate London evaluate of Books 2007-07-19)
Building upon the becoming acceptance that the Hebrew Bible got here into being because the close to East moved from an oral to a written culture…Van der Toorn...examines the primary position old scribes performed in shaping the biblical textual content. the writer brings to undergo his giant wisdom of scribal practices during the historic close to East, and thereby exhibits how the Bible’s development is illuminated while visible in contrast history. whereas every now and then speculative (e.g., his rivalry that Deuteronomy gone through 4 versions, which he well delineates), the author’s learn calls into query those that blithely brush off resource and redaction feedback; it additionally demanding situations the conclusions of old minimalists who date the monstrous bulk of the Hebrew Bible to overdue within the Persian or early within the Hellenistic period. moreover, the portrait Van der Toorn attracts of scribal education offers a devastating blow to critics who argue that J can have been a girl. Van der Toorn demonstrates that the scribes who produced the Hebrew Bible have been a part of a much wider scribal tradition and that those that forget about this truth prove false impression the biblical textual content and its heritage. (J.S. Kaminsky selection 2007-09-01)
Van der Toorn covers enormous flooring during this quantity. He surveys literacy and authorship within the old global, the tradition and vocation of scribes, creation of the Moses and prophetic traditions, and the problems of revelation and canon...This quantity is very useful. Scribal tradition is a must-read for someone drawn to the problems of the formation, transmission, and standardization of the Hebrew Bible. (Charles Halton magazine of the Evangelical Theological Society 2007-12-01)
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Extra resources for Scribal Culture and the Making of the Hebrew Bible
The infrequent textual discoveries which have been interpreted as institution workouts tend to be weak of different interpretations in addition. lots of the socalled abecedaries, for instance, are extra plausibly interpreted as pattern texts for potters and engravers than as scribal scriblings. seventy seven we're therefore diminished to guesswork whilst attempting to reconstruct what could have been the curriculum. The comparative facts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are important to a point; so are the symptoms of Ben Sira and the gathering of the Qumran library as reconstructed at the foundation of the discoveries within the Judaean wasteland; yet any reconstruction comprises a specific amount of hypothesis. The scribal curriculum within the moment Temple interval is probably going to have consisted of 2 levels, like the scribal curriculum in Mesopotamia and Egypt. within the ﬁrst part, scholars got the fundamental abilities of writing, composition, and eloquence. the second one level of the curriculum used to be dedicated to the memorization and learn of the vintage texts in their alternate and their tradition. additional specialization is probably going to have happened, possibly within the type of someone traineeship. the fundamental scribal abilities of writing have been received within the preliminary part of this system. even though the twenty-two characters of the Hebrew alphabet are simply mastered, apprentice scribes couldn't fulfill themselves with the mere replica of the letters. they'd to benefit to jot down them with pace and in a truly legible hand. Calligraphy and velocity being the results of workout and perform, scribal scholars have been made to repeat texts containing the entire letters of the alphabet. within the Persian and Hellenistic sessions scholars most likely copied alphabetic acrostics such ninety eight In seek of the Scribes, II as Psalms 25 and 119. those biblical acrostics are similar to the Babylonian Theodicy, a cuneiform acrostic used for the guide of Mesopotamian scribes. seventy eight using psalms as educating fabric for rookies helps the view that the scribal college used to be attached with the temple. Psalm 25 is a straightforward acrostic; it has twenty-two verses, every one starting with a special letter of the alphabet. seventy nine Psalm 119 is extra complicated; it includes twenty-two stanzas; the 8 traces of every stanza all commence with a similar letter; the stanzas keep on with the order of the alphabet. by means of copying those texts, the student immediately labored his approach in the course of the whole alphabet. using those psalms as routines for apprentice scribes explains why their protagonist is usually a tender guy. hence the “I” of Psalm 25 concerns approximately his “youthful sins” (v. 7), and the speaker of Psalm 119 is a “young guy” (v. nine) who claims to have won extra perception than his lecturers (v. 99). a few of the different biblical acrostics are plausibly defined as examine fabric besides. eighty The comparative facts from Mesopotamia and Egypt indicates scribal schooling used to be geared toward studying the means of writing up to buying a wide vocabulary. For the latter function, the lecturers used lists just like the Babylonian lexical texts and the Egyptian onomastica.