The Moral World of James: Setting the Epistle in its Greco-Roman and Judaic Environments (Studies in Biblical Literature)

By James Riley Strange

In The ethical global of James, James Riley unusual compares the ethical approach within the Epistle of James with different Greco-Roman and Judaic texts. the writer of the epistle prescribed ethical practices in a global within which other folks, either pagan and Jewish, had lengthy been expressing comparable matters, and extra might proceed to take in the duty centuries after Christianity was once good proven within the Roman Empire. during this clean and thick research, Strange’s systemic comparability of texts (among them works of Plato, Plutarch, Epictetus, and Aelius Aristides, in addition to Greek Magical Papyri, tractates of the Mishnah, and the group Rule of the lifeless Sea Scrolls) unearths how James’s imaginative and prescient of a particular means of group existence was once either a part of and exact from the ethical and spiritual platforms between which it emerged.

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22. 45ff. 142. Diatr. three . 2 2 . eight three - eight five . 143. Diogenes Laertius, Lives 6. fifty eight. a hundred and forty four. Epictetus, Diatr. three . 2 2 . 1 eight (Oldfather, LCL); cf. emoKorreco in three. 22. ninety seven. a hundred forty five. Epictetus, Diatr. three. 22. seventy seven (Oldfather, LCL). 146. Epictetus, Diatr. three. 22. ninety four (Oldfather, LCL). 147. Diatr. three . 2 2 . nine 6 . 148. Ibid. 149. Diatr. three . 2 2 . 1 zero zero . one hundred fifty. Diatr. three . 2 2 . 1 zero three , a hundred and five. 151. Cf. Diatr. three . 2 2 . nine five . 152. For examples of prophetic discourse in epistolary shape directed to Diaspora Israel, see Jer 153. think of the identify Obadiah. 2 nine : 1 - three 2 and the apocryphal Letter of Jeremiah. See additionally 1 Kings 18:36; Isa 20:3; 44:26; Jer 7:25; 25:4; Amos 3:7; Dan 6:20; Zech 1:6. 154. Jas l : nine - l l / I s a four zero : 6 - 7 ; Jas 5:4/Isa 5:9; Jas 5:5/Jer 12:3. Cf. Jas 1:23/Ezek 33:32; Jas 4:4/Hos l:2ff/Isa 57:3; Jas 4:9/Joel 1:5, eight, eleven, 13/Mic 1:8; Jas four : 1 four / H o s 13:3; Jas 5:2/Isa 51:8; Jas 5:5/Hos 1:6 (LXX); Jas 5:7/Jer 5:24 ( L X X ) / H o s 6:3 (LXX); Jas 5:11/Joel 2:13/Jonah 4:2 (Exod 34:6). one hundred fifty five. Jas 5:10, 1 7 - 1 eight . 156. Jas 2 : 1 - 1 2 ; five : 1 - 6 ; cf. Isa 10:1-4; fifty eight; Am 2:6-7a; 4:1; five : 1 1 - 1 2 ; Mic 2:2, eight; three : 1 - three ; 7:3; 157. Jas four : 1 - 6 , 1 three - 1 7 ; cf. Isa five : 1 1 - 1 2 , 22; Ezek 2 three : four zero - four five ; Dan 5:22; Am 2 : 7 b - eight . Zech 7:10; Mai 3:5. 158. Jas four : eight - 1 zero ; cf. Ezek 14:6; 18:30; Joel 2 : 1 2 - 1 four ; Hos 12:6; 14:1-3; Zech 1:3-6. 159. Jas. five : 7 - 1 1 ; cf. Isa 8:17; 40:31; 51:5; Jer 14:22; U r n 3:26; Mic 7:7; Zeph 3:8. a hundred and sixty. Cf. Ezek three three : three zero - three three ; Zeph 3:13; Zech eight : 1 6 - 1 7 . • C H A P T E R F O U R * methods no longer Taken via James: the typical perform of Greco-Roman faith I n this bankruptcy, the 4 collections o f texts to be e x a m i n e d convey "popu­ lar" expressions o f faith. H e n c e , we're compelled to go away b e h i n d the for­ mal style o f the treatise and needs to flip in its place to examples o f how s o m e participants within the G r e c o - R o m a n global skilled the divine, a n d how s o m e o f t h e m left public testimony to their stories. T h i s is due partially to the character o f the G r e c o - R o m a n texts o n divine therapeutic a n d confession: there are authors, reminiscent of Plutarch, w h o inform their readers n o t to hunt therapeutic from the gods, and few that i've got discovered see the act as a very great point to do, m u c h much less educate within the correct approach to hold it out. 1 C o n f e s s i o n o f sins opposed to the gods additionally unearths little remedy within the moralists, w h o have a tendency t o relegate the matter o f solving undesirable habit to the courts (in political treatises) or to friendship a n d philosophy (see C h a p t e r three ) . W e are left with texts that attest to 2 separate avenues o f looking divine therapeutic within the G r e c o - R o m a n w o r l d magical spells and shrines to the therapeutic god Asklepios—both on hand, and b o t h reflecting discreet units o f practices. A unmarried assortment o f texts—the confession inscriptions o f Asia Minor—provides facts for the distinction o f confession o f sins. Divine therapeutic via Magic and Shrines during this part we set J a m e s ' s imaginative and prescient o f what humans o u g h t to d o along writ­ ings that offer s o m e feel o f what humans really did.

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