By Craig A. Evans
Word and Glory demanding situations fresh claims that Gnosticism, particularly as expressed within the Nag Hammadi tractate Trimorphic Protennoia, is the main average and illuminating history for figuring out the Prologue of the Fourth Gospel. Scriptural allusions and interpretive traditions recommend that Jewish knowledge culture, mediated by means of the synagogue of the diaspora, lies at the back of the Prologue and the Fourth Gospel as an entire, now not a few kind of past due first-century Gnosticism. numerous gains of the Fourth Gospel mirror the synagogue and nascent Christianity's fight to develop and guard its ideals approximately Jesus who, as God's son and Agent, used to be understood because the embodiment of the Divine note. all the components that make up Johannine christology derive from dominical culture, refracted during the lens of Jewish interpretive traditions. there is not any compelling facts that this christology derived from or used to be motivated via gnostic mythology. note and Glory additionally develops and exams standards for assessing the relative price of post-New testomony assets for the translation of latest testomony documents.
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Extra info for Word and Glory: On the Exegetical and Theological Background of John's Prologue (The Library of New Testament Studies)
Forty four note and Glory 'the tree used to be the vine'). 1 The Apocryphon of John says the tree of existence was once put within the backyard in a grove of toxic bushes (NHC II, 21. 16-22. 2), whereas in keeping with the Gospel of Philip Joseph the chippie planted a backyard of bushes, which incorporated the tree of lifestyles and the very tree from which he shaped the go (NHC II, seventy three. 8-19). 2 within the Hypostasis of the Archons (or truth of the Rulers) we're advised that Eve (the 'mother of the living') is herself the tree of existence (NHC II, 89. 11-30). Epiphanius refers to an identical Gnostic allegorical interpretation (Against Heresies 26. five. 1). In view of those interpretive traditions, a few of which might be dated to the second one century, if no longer past due first, i believe it really is precarious to argue that the tree of lifestyles imagery present in the overdue Mandaean assets is the central aspect underlying the real Vine discourse within the Fourth Gospel. yet maybe even extra troublesome is the remark that the Mandaean photograph says not anything approximately abiding and bearing fruit, that are the details of the Johannine discourse. Had Jesus stated, 'I am the tree of life', Bultmann's parallels will be worthy taking a bit extra heavily (although even this assertion turns out really basically to derive from outdated testomony knowledge and speculative traditions). because the evidence stand, it truly is tough to appreciate why the Mandaean parallels are appealed to in any respect. Few have taken Bultmann's position,3 arguing as an alternative that the previous testomony and early Jewish exegesis provide the right kind backdrop. four Schnackenburg is kind of right whilst he says that 1. See R. Rubinkiewicz, * Apocalypse of Abraham', in J. H. Charlesworth (ed. ), The previous testomony Apocrypha, I (2 vols. ; backyard urban, new york: Doubleday, 1983-85), p. 684; H. E. Gaylord, '3 (Greek Apocalypse of) Baruch', in Charlesworth (ed. ), Apocrypha, I, pp. 666-67. The identity of the tree within the backyard as a vine seems in a few early rabbis; cf. b. Sank. 70a (R. Meir); Gen. R. 15. 7 (on Gen. 2. nine) (R. Judah ben liai). 2. The organization of the pass with the bushes of paradise is perhaps based upon early Christian allegory. See the same allegory in Ign. path. eleven. 1-2. three. For a wary exception, see Schulz, Komposition und Herkunft, pp. 114-17. four. Barrett, Gospel in line with St John, pp. 470-71; Beasley-Murray, John, pp. 271-72; Brown, Gospel in line with John, П, pp. 669-72; Carson, Gospel in keeping with John, pp. 511-14; Dodd, Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel, pp. 13637; E. C. Hoskyns, The Fourth Gospel, II (ed. F. N. Davey; 2 vols. ; London: Faber & Faber, 1940), pp. 559-60; Schnackenburg, The Gospel in response to StJohn, III, pp. 104-107. See specifically R. Borig, Der wahre Weinstock: Untersuchungen zu Jo 15,1-10 (SANT, sixteen; Munich: Kösel , 1967), pp. 79-128. For dialogue of the comparability among Jesus and Israel because the vine, see A. Jaubert, 4L' picture de l. a. vigne 1. creation forty five those parallels 'show the very various starting place and which means of the Mandaean snapshot of the vine'. 1 Haenchen correctly provides that 'the Fourth Gospel isn't drawn to the relevant objective of Gnosticism, "rest" (dcvarcocwiç) , the ultimate leisure and passivity'.